System level provenance is of widespread interest for applications such as security enforcement and information protection. However, testing the correctness or completeness of provenance capture tools is challenging and currently done manually. In some cases there is not even a clear consensus about what behavior is correct. We present an automated tool, ProvMark, that uses an existing provenance system as a black box and reliably identifies the provenance graph structure recorded for a given activity, by a reduction to subgraph isomorphism problems handled by an external solver. ProvMark is a beginning step in the much needed area of testing and comparing the expressiveness of provenance systems. We demonstrate ProvMark’s usefuless in comparing three capture systems with different architectures and distinct design philosophies.